GastroPanel is a unique blood test for diagnosing vague upper abdominal pain.
Results indicate the status of your stomach health, as well as the need for any follow-up activities. The test provides information on the possibility of impaired acid secretion and the associated risks, as well as the recommendation for H. pylori eradication treatment, or gastroscopy if necessary.
A normal GastroPanel result is a sign that the gastric mucosa is working properly and it is healthy, and that the stomach troubles are functional or due to other reasons.
If the GastroPanel test result is abnormal, discuss the results with your doctor to arrange appropriate follow up activities and the possible need for gastroscopy. If all the other markers are normal, but the test finds H. pylori, discuss eradication treatment with your doctor.
If the test result refers to mucosal atrophy, gastroscopy is always recommended to investigate the severity of the condition. Sometimes the findings refer to a decreased gastric acid secretion as a result of PPI treatment. In this case, the results from a repeat test will be normal when there is a two-week break from PPI medicines. If the GastroPanel test indicates increased acid secretion, the test result will normalise after two weeks of PPI treatment.
The GastroPanel test classifies the findings into one of five diagnostic options:
H. pylori infection,
Atrophic gastritis in the antrum (lower part of the stomach)
Atrophic Gastritis in the corpus (upper part of the stomach)
Atrophic Gastritis affecting the whole stomach
In addition the level of acid secretion is reported as one of three categories: normal, low or elevated.
Gastroscopy involves passing a thin flexible endoscope with a built-in camera through the mouth and into the oesophagus to examine the oesophagus, the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. Unlike the blood-sample based GastroPanel, gastroscopy is an invasive diagnostic procedure. If the GastroPanel test finds an anacidic stomach, it does not necessarily require an endoscopy, because the reason for an anacidic stomach may be caused by PPI medication.
Consult your medical doctor on a early gastric cacner test now.
Millions of people experience non-specific stomach complaints from time to time, or even on daily basis. Less than half will seek medical advice. GastroPanel is a patient-friendly blood test for assessing the structure and function of your stomach. It is a straightforward and painless means to find out whether your stomach is healthy.
Stomach problems may present as pain or discomfort, heartburn, a feeling of heaviness, bloating, nausea or vomiting. Sometimes even severe conditions that require medical attention show no symptoms making it even more important to ensure that you get accurate information on the status of your stomach. GastroPanel is a blood test, suitable for all adults suffering from gastric complaints. Your doctor can use the results to advise you on the need for further investigations.
Gastropanel in a laboratory
In the GastroPanel test, the concentrations of four biomarkers are determined from a blood sample. The biomarkers: pepsinogen I (PGI), pepsinogen II (PGII) and gastrin-17 (G17), which are secreted by the cells in gastric mucosa, are measured. Additionally, Helicobacter pylori antibodies are measured.
An overall interpretation of all four biomarker results provides a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of the gastric mucosa than could be achieved using the individual biomarkers separately.
The GastroPanel report is a written statement that describes the test results and classifies the findings as one of the five diagnostic outcomes: normal (healthy) stomach, H. pylori infection, atrophic antrum gastritis, atrophic corpus gastritis and atrophic pangastritis (antrum and corpus).
Biomarker reference ranges
The reference ranges (=normal values) of the four biomarkers, have been determined on Finnish people, analyzed at the Biohit Laboratory.
Also, multiple published clinical studies on these markers, incorporating endoscopic mucosal biopsy assessment, are consistent with these settings.
GastroPanel report by GastroSoft
The GastroPanel report is a tool designed to assist doctors in interpreting GastroPanel test results. The report contains the biomarker results (including the cut-off values) and a brief interpretation of the results. The interpretation provides information on the structure and function of gastric mucosa, including any changes in acid secretion and associated risks. Where relevant, the report also provides recommendations for helicobacter eradication therapy or gastroscopy.
Pepsinogen I (PGI)30 - 160 µg/l
Pepsinogen II (PGII)3 - 15 µg/l
PGI/PGII3 - 20
Gastrin-17b (G17b)1 - 7 pmol/l
Gastrin-17s (G17s)3 - 30 pmol/l
H. pylori IgG (HPAbG)< 30 EIU
* GastroPanel reference values may be subject to changes following new clinical trial data.
Helicobacter IgG antibodies (H. pylori IgG)
Helicobacter pylori nests on gastric mucosa of an infected person. It is usually transmitted in childhood and causes an infection (inflammation, gastritis). If left untreated, the infection becomes chronic and persists for life. The infection is very common in older age groups and it increases the risk of duodenal or gastric ulcers. For some patients, Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric mucosal atrophy and dysfunction (atrophic gastritis). Atrophic gastritis is usually asymptomatic, and it causes the stomach to become acid-free, where oral microbes are able to live and produce a carcinogenic acetaldehyde from sugars and alcohol. Although Helicobacter pylori infection can be treated, an acid-free stomach rarely recovers, and this poses a significant risk of developing stomach and oesophageal cancer. Acid-free stomachs are associated with malabsorption of vitamin B12, iron, magnesium, calcium, zinc and certain drugs. Calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis and deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause anaemia, dementia, depression and peripheral nervous system damage. Performing Endoscopy on individuals suffering from atrophic gastritis may help to diagnose stomach cancer at an early stage, when the prognosis of gastric cancer significantly improves. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is likely when the antibody level is more than 30 EIU. When eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori is completed, it may take several months before the antibody levels return to normal after successful eradication therapy.
Pepsinogen I (PGI)
Pepsinogen I concentration in blood reflects the mucosal structure and function of the gastric body (corpus). Infection withHelicobacter pylori or autoimmune disease can cause moderate to severe atrophy of stomach body mucosa (atrophic gastritis of corpus). Then follows a fall in blood pepsinogen I levels below 30 µg/l, and the associated acid-free or low-acid stomach. In contrast, if the patient has inflammation of stomach body mucosa, but no atrophy (gastritis of corpus), the blood pepsinogen I concentration tends to increase to some extent.
Pepsinogen II (PGII)
Pepsinogen II concentration in blood reflects the structure and function of whole stomach mucosa. Its concentration in blood circulation increases in the case of stomach mucosal inflammation (gastritis). In most cases the reason for this is a Helicobacter pylori infection, but sometimes other factors are involved such as some drugs, bacterial, viral or parasitic infections, biliary reflux (rise of bile acids from the intestine to the stomach), strong spices or alcohol. Values more than 10 µg/l often refer to inflammation.
Pepsinogen I/Pepsinogen II (PGI / PGII)
The Pepsinogen I/II ratio is used together with Pepsinogen I value for diagnosis of atrophy of the gastric body mucosa (atrophic gastritis of corpus). In the case of atrophic gastritis of corpus, the ratio decreases below 3.
Basal Gastrin-17 (G-17b)
The Gastrin-17 concentration in blood reflects the integrity and function of the lower part of the stomach (the antrum). Gastrin17 is secreted exclusively from G-cells of the antrum and duodenum. Biohit's monoclonal antibody only measures the biologically active amidated Gastrin-17 peptide (sulphated and non-sulphated), having a specific receptor on the surface of enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) (cholecystokinin receptor, CCK2R). On the effect of Gastrin-17 stimulates the ECL cells to release histamine into the blood circulation, which seeks the histamine receptor on the surface of the parietal cell, and stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid from them. The Gastrin-17 concentration in blood (during fasting) will fall when the acidity of the gastric contents rises (pH below 2.5) (less than 1 pmol/l refers to increased secretion of hydrochloric acid). The Gastrin-17 value during fasting also falls in case of the antrum mucosal atrophy, where G-cells disappear. Low gastrin-17 levels in blood during fasting may therefore indicate either an increased secretion of hydrochloric acid or antrum mucosal atrophy (antrum mucosa atrophy, however, is dependent upon infection with Helicobacter pylori). If the Gastrin-17 concentration is above 7 pmol/l, it is usually because of decreased secretion of hydrochloric acid; a slight decrease (7 – 10 pmol/l), hypochlorhydric stomach (10 -20 pmol/l), achlorhydric stomach (over 20 pmol/l) (PPI medication or atrophy limited to corpus mucosa) or inflammation of antrum mucosa (antrum predominant gastritis, see PGII).
Increased secretion of hydrochloric acid may increase the risk of, and complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In the case of reflux disease (heartburn), stomach contents are regurgitated into the oesophagus, particularly if muscle of lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is weak. This could result in ulcerative esophagitis, and so-called Barrett's esophagus, which if untreated are risk factors of oesophageal cancer.
Stimulated Gastrin-17 (G-17s)
The main accelerators of Gastrin-17 secretion are vagal tonus, gastrin-releasing peptide hormone, stretching of gastric antrum and protein-rich food. Distinguishing between antrum mucosal atrophy caused by Helicobacter pylori infection and increased secretion of hydrochloric acid (gastrin17 basal <1 pmol/l) can be performed by gastroscopy (preferred) or by measuring the response of gastrin-17 after protein stimulation. If the stimulated gastrin-17 value is still low after protein stimulation (less than 3 pmol/l) it indicates antrum atrophic gastritis.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and biomarkers (GastroPanel)
Proton pump inhibitors reduce the secretion of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells. The drug metabolite binds irreversibly to the parietal cell proton pump. When the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach decreases, gastrin-17 secretion increases. It has a trophic effect on the cells secreting pepsinogen in the stomach mucosa, whereas pepsinogens I and II levels in the blood circulation will rise and remain high for a rather long time. The half-life of proton pump inhibitor is about 18 hours, so it will take 4-10 days before the secretion of hydrochloric acid returns to the normal level after treatment. Because of the active feedback system, the gastrin-17 concentration is reduced at the same time (in 4-10 days). Therefore, gastrin-17 is a very good non-invasive marker of acid secretion regulation. Stopping long-term PPI therapy follows with very strong "acid surge", when patients gets very strong heartburn again (gastrin-17 level is generally very low, less than 1 pmol/l).